ADB assistance to Indonesia has adapted to the country's changing development priorities. In the 1970s, there was an emphasis on agriculture. From the 1980s onwards, ADB has assisted with improvements in energy, urban infrastructure, and education. During the 1990s and beyond, it began supporting finance sector reform and fiscal resilience.

The ADB country partnership strategy (CPS), 2016–2019 for Indonesia focuses on higher and more inclusive environmentally sustainable growth through improved infrastructure services, better economic governance, and enhanced human resource development.