This study is made by the Maritime Energy & Sustainable Development (MESD) Centre of Excellence and has received research funding from the Singapore Maritime Institute (SMI). 

Launched in October 2017, Maritime Energy & Sustainable Development (MESD) Centre of Excellence is jointly funded by Singapore Maritime Institute (SMI) and Nanyang Technological University (NTU). As the first maritime research centre supported by SMI, MESD is a continual effort to deepen Singapore's maritime R&D capability and Maritime Singapore's position as a global maritime knowledge and innovation hub to support Singapore's strategic maritime needs. With the focus on future port and shipping applications, MESD CoE aims to develop innovative and sustainable solutions by working closely with all the key stakeholders within the maritime cluster.